- The defendant, Royle, intended to rob the 79-year-old victim
- Royle caused injuries to the victim during the robbery, which the victim later died from
- Did Royle murder the victim?
- The R v Woollin  virtual certainty jury direction is required where a defendant’s purpose is not to cause really serious harm
- The judge’s jury direction of finding ‘certainty’ as opposed to a ‘virtual certainty’ did not affect the security of the conviction, where a minimum 25 year sentence was recommended