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Case C-397/01 Pfeiffer [2005]

A collective agreement did not circumvent the working time directive, allowing Red Cross workers to be required to work for 49 hours per week (as opposed to 48 as required under the Directive). The Directive Could only be avoided by individual opt-out, not collective agreement.

There is a duty on Member States to interpret national law in accordance with EU law, including directives. This is known as the doctrine of indirect effect.

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