Case C-132/88 Commission of the European Communities v Hellenic Republic (Taxation of motor cars) 
- Greece implemented a tiered car tax system, which taxed cars based on their engine capacities
- The top tier of this system imposed a high flat rate tax on vehicles with engine capacities greater than 1800cc
- Greece did not manufacture any cars with engine capacities greater than 1800cc, therefore no domestic cars fit into the high rate tax band
- Was this top tier flat rate discriminatory against foreign products, given that it targeted them exclusively?
- Usually, and contrary to Humblot, an objective, and not an effects-based test was used to conclude that the tax was not contrary to Art 110 TFEU on the prohibition of internal taxes
- It was said that the tax could be justified in the interest of protecting the environment, despite the fact that such a large tax-jump from a small change in engine capacity would be likely to discourage the purchase of the larger-engined (and always foreign) cars